Let's Podcast Posts Predictions Recommendations
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by Richard Lucas

Eric Liu, Chris Derr, Ryan Cole



Advising, development, anyway I could be of service- let's work together. Reach out- richard@nogradient.com.


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Produced by Chris Derr and James Newhouse. Music by Chris Hoogewerff.

Annalise & Ben, Married and Open

For Annalise and Ben, marriage doesn’t mean the end of other sexual partners or exploration of sexuality. They share the intimate details how they make it work- who knows, maybe you can too.

12:35 I became more comfortable with myself and my own sexuality. I became comfortable saying out loud to myself and to other people that I'm actually bisexual. And I am attracted to women as well as men. And I think that to hide a part of yourself that is true is really difficult. It evolved out me just accepting my sexuality and letting Ben as my husband know that “hey I am attracted to women as well. And this is actually something that I need to explore in order to feel completely whole.”

26:10 It's very important that we at least trust each other's sexual partners. If for whatever reason the situation was that we couldn't physically meet the other person first that's okay as long as we explain who they are and talk about them and they're a trustworthy person. For us it's full communication about everything at all times. Some couples have a policy of don't ask don't tell. That could work for some people but for us it’s full communication about everything and every time- zero secrets.

59:30 I would just open the conversation and not feel like the subject is taboo because there are so many people since we've opened our marriage that are either interested or they're in a similar boat but they just don't talk about it because they're nervous of being judged. My advice is just to be open and to live your life how you want to live your life and celebrate living and do what you want to do without hurting anyone else.

Libsyn, YouTube.

Pat Daly, Doing Pretty Good

Pat Daly mic’d up at 2am- coming at you late night style, late night theme, late night people. The reckoning of high school bullies everywhere, Daly cracks open his machinery to show us how he ticks- talking friendships, cyber security, and the future.

2:00 There are some people you can be so close with that even when you don't want to see anybody, they're the people you kick it with.

9:10 The biggest misconception from consumers about security is that because you are not a high profile person, you are not a target for a cyber attack. That's not how these work in a lot of cases these are not targeted attacks. It's an email that gets sent out to thousands of email addresses. It's an automated program that's pinging the internet for a specific software version or a specific type of device that has a known vulnerability. People think of it like someone's going fishing with a fishing rod they're not going after them, they're going after the big tuna, but it's more like your tossing a net in the water and whatever comes up comes up.

45:05 Learning is easy, anyone can learn, you just have to do it. It's hard work, it's a lot of time, but if you strip that away, it is the easiest thing. Time and focus. That's how you learn.

Libsyn, YouTube.

Justin Dunn Goes All In

Justin Dunn, the kind of guy that sits back, observes, learns, watches people make the mistakes- then plays his hand. He talks sustaining himself on poker full time, his foray into the cannabis industry, and why he does his own thing.

26:10 Straight up experience. I've been through the trenches of not knowing when to leave. Going broke. Asking people for loans that I know at Blue Lake, trying to get it back. Sometimes it works and that's why you do it again. You just gotta cut that out completely and be comfortable enough with yourself, "I'm not playing at my best, I could play tomorrow." Poker never ends so there's always tomorrow.

59:30 It's like going through a maze. You could experience all the paths and know where they lead. As opposed to just picking the right path all the way to the middle, where you haven't experienced the maze fully.

1:12:50 If you start going off the beaten path you're going to get beaten. You're going to get beaten until you get your shit together. If someone's always telling you what to do, they you're always going down their path. You're going down the clear cut way that's already been experienced.

Libsyn, YouTube.

Mackenzie Angell, Call Him Mac Attack

Mac Attack let's it all hang out. Along with live mixing on the show, he talks to me about his new music label Fuzzy Puddles, a rising event in LA he helps put on every month called Bass Waffles promising FREE WAFFLES and FAT BASS, and the art of not selling out.

9:15 I haven't finished as of now. It's on the back burner, but it's not a huge priority at the moment. I started off doing Critical Theory and Social Justice. It was a mouthful and a nightmare for me personally. Great, great subject matter, but the forum and the people that were participating in it, especially at Occi, some of them were just a little too much. Arguing things for the sake of arguing them and making everyone walk through a laser grid. "Bro, I'm not PC, I'm Mac, bro." It was a circle jerk of people jerking themselves off with their own thoughts. It was not a loving environment for promoting forward thinking. It was reprimanding you in an oppressive way, which is exactly what you're learning about, oppression, and being in that environment was like that. No one's voice was actually being listened to. Everyone was just speaking to hear themselves talk. I just couldn't take it.

38:10 If you're not doing it, if you're not actually spending the time to move towards those goals, then you don't really want them. What you want to do is what you're spending your time doing.

43:45 We have enough of a little mini wave going and artists associated with us that have their own little waves going that people want to be a part of it. It's dope because at first we were working so hard and even our own friends didn't really have that much faith in us in the beginning. We had to fucking convince and convince people to come to shows and drag our friends out five minutes to a free show that's down the block. "Come listen to your homies suck." You could hear the noobness and the lack of skill and the lack of sound. We weren't confident up there at all, and you could see that. It wasn't really fun to be around. It's hard to support that if you don't really want to get behind it. Now two years later, we're doing pretty well. We're throwing a dope monthly event with two other event companies, the Table Productions and Synaptic events.

Libsyn, YouTube.

Robbie Finnigan, When Tech Wasn't Cool

A storyteller and advertiser, Robbie talks working for Playgirl magazine, working with Apple and Steve Jobs to bring tech to the people, rampant sexual assault in the ad business, and getting a vial of cocaine as a bonus. Strap in, welcome to the 80s.

8:15 We took the jobs that nobody else wanted. We ended up hitting a home run because nobody paid attention to us. Nobody was really looking at what we were doing.

11:45 I could go on, and on, and on, and on. I'm what? Around 50 now. Still happened to me three years ago. It's still happening. I was just talking to someone last night about it. It happened at a different ad agency where I worked. Really, really bad. I was with the president of the agency in his office. It was so bad, and his reaction was to send me a dozen white roses the next day, which who the heck does that because I'm an employee at your place, and everybody is going to wonder why the president is sending me a dozen white roses. We were so conditioned to look the other way that people were like,"Oh, so and so is sending you roses. He must have ... another mistake, another mistake."

15:15 I remember going on the plane one time and this man condescendingly, but he was trying to be nice I'm sure, looked at me and goes,"What is that? Your sewing machine?". Because I had this big computer I'm carrying around. I'm like, "No. It's a personal computer." He had no idea what that was.

Libsyn, YouTube.

Raven Lee on Harnessing Crisis

World traveler teaching Shamanic healing, energy healing, and meditation. Dr. Raven Lee shares how the suicide of her husband unlocked a new world for her. A world she shares with us, revealing how we can use it to live in the moment, have compassion, and never let a crisis go to waste. Open your heart, open your mind, and jack into Raven’s world.

4:00 30 some years ago my husband at the time had a psychotic breakdown and as a young mother, being Chinese-Catholic, I was told to just try to do the right thing. To endure it, but something in me said, "No. This was dangerous." I saw he was being a threat to my children, and I dared to speak up to initiate a separation and a month following that, he committed suicide. I went into the abyss of darkness because I thought it was my fault and for two months, I was swirling in this darkness, despair, taking medication to help me because I was going into panic attacks, and holding down two jobs trying to be a single mother.

5:00 In the moment of crisis, our way of adaptation no longer works. In that moment, it's as if the rug has been pulled from under us, but our human condition, human spirit is so amazing, as if we are hardwired to grow. That within us, there is a resilient spirit that when we no longer keep adapting like a pattern, like an automatic robotic reaction, there is actually a gateway, a doorway that we can begin to see beyond and that was what happened to me.

30:00 There is a wisdom seed in us waiting for us to come home and the only way to do that is to be in the moment. In the moment, we are no longer pushing away something we don't like. We're not grasping. That is why being in the now is the beginning of discovering who we are. It's just a doorway, the moment is a doorway. Once you enter that moment, what do you do? How do you go about it? That's the path and that’s how I like to help people, to discover that.

Libsyn, YouTube.

Jaqi Hansen Going the Distance

Two time world record holder in the marathon, Boston Marathon 1973 winner, and instrumental in bringing women's distance events to the Olympics- Jaqi Hansen talks it all. That thing about the world you've been wanting to change, do what Jaqi did, throw years and will at it.

12:54 You should never take anything for granted, because a whole lot of people were responsible for giving you an opportunity, so you should also not waste your God-given talent. Yes, never take it for granted. Leave the world in a better place.

1:02:50 I'm just going through as many of the top ranked five and 10,000 meter runners from as many countries as I can get, and we ended up with I think it was 70 women from almost 30 different countries. I have actual right to sue letters along with the IRC introductory cover letter and our newsletter all translated in 10 different languages through the Nike International department mailed off and mailed back. I still got them in a binder. 10 different languages all around the world. Some of those women are really putting a lot on the line. It took a lot of courage. They don't live in as friendly environment as I am here in the U.S. Maybe they don't enjoy the same rights. Maybe it was pretty challenging for some of them to sign on the dotted line like that, but they did. We had a case. They took us on, and they paid for everything that Nike didn't pay for. Nike paid for our press conference. Mind you, now, the Olympics are coming to Los Angeles in 1984. We announced the lawsuit in the summer of '83, and we maximized the audience by going to the first track and field world championships in Helsinki in August of '83. We just kept getting re-moved to court until we're up to appellate court, and we're running out of time or we probably would have gone to the Supreme Court, but we did not win in court, but you can lose a battle and still win the war. I believe that is exactly what happened for us. We now have the world's attention. They don't look good for not adding these events. Within 30 days, they added the 10,000 before 1988. Not for '84, they're not going to let us control that. They're going to show us who is in charge, so they postponed it. They add the 5,000 two Olympics later.

1:13:30 I think what the women and men who are not doing performance enhancing drugs, all they ask is a clean fair race. Is that too much to ask for? I just don't know how they're going to stay on top of it. I don't know how they're going to control it, how they're going to legislate it. It just feels like athletes who do cheat are always one step ahead of the drug testers, and the drug testers are always being reactive, and instead of proactive, and they don't know what's coming and what's down the line. What do we test for next? How do we test for? How do we catch them? It just seems like a constant battle.

Libsyn, YouTube.

Clark Goes There

You can't make this up, a Marxist who attempted to join the United States Marine Corps. Clark is a friend from high school and one of the most interesting people I know. He has thoughts on everything. Sit down, strap in, and get blasted by the Clark experience as he talks movies and tv, the Marines, Marxism, politics, and religion. Like I said, he goes there.

31:30 Southern California, not a lot of hicks or rednecks to burn Qurans with so you gotta hide yourself. But you can be proud of how Republican you are amidst all the Democrats. Because you see you're special. You're Republican. You're important. Everybody else, they're just stupid. Those academics, those poets, virtually every person, every artist, everything that doesn't have to do with the CMAs, they're all stupid.

34:00 Fantasy was part of my religion. I remember going to church down at St. Francis and Jesus Christ just dying on that cross, that's not a hero I wanna read about. I wanna read about the dark elf Drizzt Do’Urden, fighting vampires and demons and all sorts of stuff.

59:30 The last Marxist that went through the Marine Corps was Lee Harvey Oswald. So I definitely tried to keep that silent.

Libsyn, YouTube.

Chris Hoogewerff on Quitting his Job and Lifting Off

In a 50 dollar a month rental studio, Chris Hoogewerff talks quitting his day job to pour himself into music. This guy has a calmness and a realness we can all learn from. In the bay area and need a musician? Book him.

5:50 I decided I wanted to switch, and I picked up the sax over Christmas break, and I just brought that to my band class when we came back. I didn't ever really talk to the instructor. I just carried that one instead of the clarinet, switched seats, and that was my first memory really enjoying the music.

51:30 If you're sitting at a desk, cashing a good paycheck every month doing something you don't wanna do, and you do have flexibility, financially then it just seems crazy to keep doing that, because there's so little certainty with everything else. At least you can have certainty in the fact that you're trying something that you wanna be doing.

52:55 I really do believe that if more people did what they wanted to be doing in their lives, that we’d have a whole lot less to worry about as a society. I think it's not people who are doing what they love to do every day who are burning the world down.

Libsyn, YouTube.

Lindsay Rico Going Measure for Measure

Linsday Rico, professional actress and genuine human being, talks Shakespeare, being queer, and the LA vs NYC acting scenes. She's out here chasing a dream and making it happen.

47:40 Because I think that we are all on a spectrum. Day to day I lie somewhere on the spectrum. I think that it like changes sometimes. I'm in a very committed relationship with a woman right now, but I can't deny that I still find men attractive and I can understand why people would find men attractive.

48:52 I think that every minority enriches their role with their life experience. As a person who lies outside of the norm, we can't deny that it's human nature to be curious about a person's path that's not like ours and that we should honor that and not get so defensive about it.

1:09:55 It might not happen but I completely accept that. I might not get to do the things that I want to do, but for right now, I totally am. I truly believe that I am in the right place and though this experience has just been tremendous and so challenging, it was my first length Shakespeare. It's like doing a play in a different language. There were a lot of things that really took me to task, for sure, during this process, but I know it made me a better performer and it certainly gave me more of life experience and challenged me to step outside my boundaries. I was afraid to do it but I think that that's all the more reason why you should definitely, definitely do something.

Libsyn, YouTube.

Chris Derr on Building an Audience of 200

Chris Derr, host of the no gimmes podcast and one of the best conversationalists I know, talks the mods at Boston College, podcasting, and professional golf. His positivity, soak it in.

36:00 John Daly is a golfer known for hitting the long ball, 2 time major champion. He’s happy gilmore of the real world. But he’s a big booze hound, likes to smoke cigarettes, he’s got a bunch of interviews where he said he would drink 30 beers in a day and 20 diet cokes and 2 packs of cigarettes…John Daly is a free wheeling reckless kinda guy. He doesn’t spend time on the fuckin range. Spending time on the range will drive him crazy. He’ll get too mechanical, it won’t work. He wouldn’t have gotten to the level that he got to by being a range rat. So he would just play games. One thing about John Daly he’s the nastiest one handed left handed golfer you’ve ever seen. He’s a right handed golfer and if you look it up on Youtube right now John Daly one handed shots, he’s got videos of him hitting 30 yard sand shots with only his left hand. He’s all loose and fuckin flopping around doing his thing and hitting these one arm one handed bunker shots to 2 feet from 30 yards. It’s one of the hardest shots in golf. This fuckin dude is a natural. This guy can do whatever he wants.

49:35 My goal with no gimmes is to have the winner of every single PGA tour event every week come on the show the Monday after they win. I want one winner to come on the show every Monday the day after they win. Tournaments end on Sunday. For the LPGA tour, the European tour, the Champions tour, the Web.com tour, the latin America tour, the Canada tour, the fuckin Hooters Tour, the fuckin PGA tour, every single tour that you could ever fuckin imagine. The tournament ends on Sunday barring a weather delay. I want to get every Monday a winner from the week before on the show. Even if it’s for only 15 minutes while they are in an airport terminal getting ready to fly to fuckin St. Louis. Talk to me. Give me 15 minutes. I think the minute after you win people 1.) are on an incredible high, 2.) have really good perspective and 3.) could impart some knowledge on anyone and get people a better understanding on who they are. So that is my goal and when I would consider no gimmes a success.

54:15 Positivity is a choice. I make a conscious effort to be positive every single day, take care of myself and care about other people.

Libsyn, YouTube.


Of Delusionists and Blochaters

For every popular phenomenon there is an equal and opposite group of detractors. This creates a positive feedback loop where the promoters become more fervent in their support as the detractors become more fervent in the opposite, and vice versa. This leaves us with two irrational groups.

Blockchain is no different. The delusionists on one side frothing at the mouth that blockchain will change everything, can be used for everything, and oh, many of them are financially invested so they are less concerned with the truth and more concerned with pumping their portfolio. On the other side are the blochaters, who have been pushed so far into the detractor camp by the delusionists that they dismiss the technology all together. Kai Stinchcombe is one of these blochaters, and he has written two excellent posts that many are rallying around because they are sick and tired of hearing the buzzword bullshit. I mostly agree with Kai but his second post makes two points that I'd like to respectfully attack. Kai writes:
"Blockchain systems are supposed to be more trustworthy, but in fact they are the least trustworthy systems in the world. Today, in less than a decade, three successive top bitcoin exchanges have been hacked, another is accused of insider trading, the demonstration-project DAO smart contract got drained."
This isn't fair. It's not the blockchain systems that have been compromised, it's the infrastructure built around them that have been compromised, i.e. the non blockchain parts. Bitcoin has existed for almost a decade and it has not been directly compromised once. That is a fantastic feat for a system that exists on the internet and is owned collectively by people all over the world. Yes, keys have been stolen, wallets have been drained, but the protection of private keys is outside the scope of the Bitcoin network. As for the DAO smart contract bug, that wasn't an issue with Ethereum itself, that was an issue with the contract written on top of Ethereum. Companies worth billions of dollars are getting hacked on a regular basis, but that isn't a problem with the internet, that's a problem with the company's security practices.

As for the second point I take issue with, Kai writes:
"A lawless and mistrustful world where self-interest is the only principle and paranoia is the only source of safety is not a paradise but a crypto-medieval hellhole."
Brother, this is the world we already live in. Don't let the shower twice a day and nifty technology fool you, humans are running on caveman software and we are all one week of no food away from destroying each other. 75 years of peace without a major war is not the result of a global morality boost, it is the result of mutually assured destruction. What has kept the peace is not that we trust each other more as a species, it's that nations have guns pointed at each others collective heads. What an irony that the greatest weapon ever created has made war obsolete. Nations have a self interest to avoid war at all costs and miners have a self interest to follow the rules of the network or face financial loss. It is this very threat of loss that keeps both nations and blockchain networks well behaved.

The great innovation of blockchain technology is that consensus can be reached among parties that don't trust each other individually, but are able to trust each other collectively- without an overseer. This is not only a huge technological feat, but a social one. The only previous technology that has come close to this is the BitTorrent protocol. Blockchain is in its infancy. It is a solution looking for a problem. I can't tell you exactly what problems it will find, only that I'm optimistic it will find them. And no, IBM hasn’t found the problem either. Besides the fact that blockchain only complicates supply chain management, a company pushing its own blockchain system is backwards and removes its main selling point- decentralization. I'll leave you with this from Benedict Evans (whose newsletter I recommend below):
"You can believe both that crypto is full of delusional utopian lunatics saying stuff that’ll never happen and that it’s a profound technology that will change the world. That’s what talking about the internet was like in 1994."
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Reminiscing on the Release of Windows 7

Coming off the disaster that was the release of Windows Vista with its performance and compatibility issues, there was a palpable sense in the community that Windows 7 had to be our saving grace. Despite Windows having the vast majority of the market share, we fanboys felt under attack. Everyone thought Macs were cooler, easier to use, safer, and faster. And the worst part of all, you had to field the onslaught of "Macs are better" from your sister's friends. "Security through obscurity," we cried in defense. Harder to use wasn't a bad thing, we took pride in it. We did our duty, we relished in defending our platform. The strongest among us believed Vista was only unsuccessful because the OEMs didn't properly update their drivers. But in our heart of hearts, we knew the truth.

Much to our delight in 2007, a mere six months following the release of Vista, Microsoft announced the next version would be codenamed "Windows 7." The salivating started, we saw a flicker of light that would be our salvation. Then, in 2008, Microsoft officially announced the name would be "Windows 7." We cheered. The name was simple, obvious, to the point. It felt fast, easy to type, easy to translate, it oozed efficiency and we couldn't wait to touch it. In late 2008 a beta version of Windows 7 was leaked and distributed on torrent sites. The bravest among us slapped it on our machines and sung its praises near and far, anything to wipe the memory of Vista from our minds as quickly as possible. "Using the beta on machines responsible for life support, at a hospital where I work, runs perfectly, absolutely zero problems," sang the evangelists. In early 2009, Microsoft released the official Windows 7 beta. Microsoft wanted to hear from us and there was a real sense that they were listening. Our duty was to install the beta and give feedback, if only in the form of anonymous usage statistics. We were in this together.

I remember being stationed at my parents' dining room table, installing it on my 10-pound machined plastic HP dv6000 with that AMD Turion engine.The feeling of risk and fear we all get when we do a fresh install, a part of us thinking, "this might not work." Worked it did, and on boot I was awarded with that beautiful betta fish. I leaned back in my chair, looked up at the heavens to Steve Ballmer and Bill Gates, arms outstretched, palms up, head back, "We made it."

The betta fish wallpaper, a nod from a large behemoth of a corporation that said, "Hey, thanks for testing our software, here's an inside joke we know only the real hax0rs will get ;)." We ate it up. Windows Aero was fully realized, and for some reason we liked it a lot more in 7 than in Vista. The taskbar, unapologetically geometric, it all felt so right. And of course those insane wallpapers that were introduced in Windows 7 RC 1. I remember a digg.com post, God rest its soul, that topped the charts saying, "Microsoft is on some serious drugs," linking to the wallpapers, we loved it. They showed us that Microsoft had changed. They showed us that Microsoft knew how to have fun, and have fun with us, the community, because no one else cares about these minor details. But we did, and we cared that Microsoft cared too. The wallpapers were a victory lap for a product that hadn’t even been released. At this point, we all knew the success of Windows 7 was a foregone conclusion.

The official release in October 2009 was glorious. Pre-order records were broken, adoption soared. The troves of Windows XP users who avoided Vista were beckoned, we took their hands and told them it was safe now, they could come out of their troll holes and upgrade. That default wallpaper greeting you on first boot, like the name, it was efficient, simple, it was a digital manifestation of the promises of Windows 7. Promises kept, thanks in part to us. We had arrived.
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Only this time it's Blockchain

In A Random Walk Down Wall Street, Burton G. Malkiel writes:
"It was called the tronics boom, because the stock offerings often included some garbled version of the word "electronics" in their title, even if the companies had nothing to do with the electronics industry. Buyers of these issues didn't really care what the companies made- so long as it sounded electronic, with a suggestion of the esoteric. For example, American Music Guild, whose business consisted entirely of the door-to-door sale of phonograph records and players, changed its name to Space-Tone before "going public." The shares were sold to the public at 2 and, within a few weeks, rose to 14."
60 years later we are seeing companies add blockchain to their name with similar results. Castle in the air theory is in full effect and I expect that most speculators are purchasing these shares simply because they think they will be able to sell it to someone else playing the same game for a higher price. Eventually the music stops, it always does. For better or worse I expect the havoc to the public stock exchanges will be mitigated by the fact that speculators can fill their insatiable appetite buy taking part in ICOs and purchasing cryptocurrencies directly. Do I think we are in a bubble? Absolutely. Do I think that blockchain and the potential of distributed consensus will ultimately prove to be useful? Yes. We are in the early days of blockchain and though not much has come of it yet, I think it's only a matter of time. The bubble will burst, the hype will die, and the people in it for the right reasons will keep their noses to the grindstone and take this to the future where they'll be waiting for us.
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Hodlers, Consider This

Given the absolute stunning rise in the value of the cryptocurrency market, this is leaving many with the difficult decision of whether they should sell some of their position or not (remember, it doesn't have to be all or nothing). So what should you do? There is no single answer as everyone has different financial goals and risk tolerance. But I ask you to consider two principles when determining when and how much you should sell, loss aversion and rebalancing.

Loss aversion "refers to people's tendency to prefer avoiding losses to acquiring equivalent gains: it's better to not lose $5 than to find $5". Given this, hedge your bets against your future self feeling devastated if the value of your position plummets. This will cause less pain than the pain of missing out on even greater potential gains.

Rebalancing "is the process of realigning the weightings of a portfolio of assets." You never want your asset allocation to be heavily skewed toward one specific asset (e.g. Apple stock, Bitcoin, etc.) as this decreases the diversification of your portfolio and increases your level of risk. If you have $20k in traditional non cryptocurrency investments that include a range of different stocks, bonds, etc. and $20k in Bitcoin, half your portfolio is in one specific asset. This is an extremely risky position given all it takes is for Bitcoin to diminish in value, and that brings your entire portfolio down with it. You may even feel that given the performance of cryptocurrencies recently you should invest even more than you already have. This is dangerous. As the prices continue to climb, simply by not selling you are in effect increasing your investment already, because you have that much more to lose. Consider this, let's say you purchased 1 Bitcoin in 2017 for $1k. At the time of this writing, your initial $1k investment is now worth ~$20k. You may be tempted to continue to hold, because you think to yourself, "this was only a $1k investment anyway, so what if I lose it." This is an incorrect way of thinking and just because cryptocurrencies are new, doesn't mean sound financial principles do not apply. The reality is, you now have $20k to lose, not $1k. And framing your position this way will allow you to make more sound decisions regarding when and how much to sell.

For those who have made significant gains, I would say there are two groups. The first group is loss averse, made up of those who are constantly worried about their crypto assets and constantly checking the prices throughout the day. To this group I would say, this is no way to live. If done in a healthy manner, making money should reduce the stress in your life, not increase it. If you fall into this group, I would sell enough so that even if all of your crypto assets go to zero, you will still be satisfied with the amount you made. The amount to sell to reach this point will be different for everyone but I would say a good starting point is to sell at least enough to get your initial investment back plus some on top of that. The second group is not phased by the extreme price changes and is not letting it affect their daily lives. To this group I say, seriously consider selling to rebalance your portfolio to a more appropriate asset allocation. Yes, crypto market capitalization has seen a fantastic increase, but that doesn't mean it will continue forever, it almost certainly won't.

Whatever you do, be sure you are aware of your country's applicable tax laws (here is a great guide for US citizens). Even though it is in a gray area right now, I would err on the side of caution and report your gains to the government. You don't want to get in a situation where you have made a bunch of money, didn't report it, and then get in trouble for tax evasion down the road. That would cause stress and remember, making money should reduce stress. For those in the United States, the IRS has released guidelines which means your crypto gains are taxed as capital gains, just like a stock. If you have held for at least a year before you sell, it will be taxed as a long term capital gain, which means you will be taxed at a lower rate than if you held for less than a year. This should certainly factor into when you plan to sell, but don't take this to mean you should wait a year no matter what. The extra tax associated with short term gains may pale in comparison to the loss of value of your crypto assets while you wait for the one year mark.

A lot of the narrative around cryptocurrencies is that they will replace our entire financial system and investing in tradition stocks and bonds no longer makes sense in this new world order. This is absolutely wrong. I think John Bogle's thoughts on gold being a speculation instead of an investment apply to crypto as well. He argues "Bonds are supported by interest coupons, stocks are supported by dividend yield and earnings growth, and gold is supported by the ability that someone is going to take it off your hands for more than you paid for it." Regardless of whether cryptocurrency proves to be a success and ultimately facilitates a large part of the world's financial transactions, this doesn't mean that investing in companies through stocks and bonds will be obsolete. No matter what happens in the crypto world, a steel company will still make and profit off of selling steel, and that profit will flow to its shareholders. The crypto world right now is where the web was in 1995. The pieces are there but no one quite knows for sure what's going to be built. Bitcoin and all these other cryptocurrencies could very well be the Netscape of the crypto world.

Whatever happens with the price, the winners, the losers, don't forget to appreciate how unbelievable all this is. A bunch of personal computers connected to each other in 2009 started something that the world's largest banks and governments are needing to respond to. What a time to be alive.
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We don't Need Super Intelligence for AI to be Super

In The Impossibility of Intelligence Explosion, François Chollet writes:
"Arguably, the usefulness of software has been improving at a measurably linear pace, while we have invested exponential efforts into producing it. The number of software developers has been booming exponentially for decades, and the number of transistors on which we are running our software has been exploding as well, following Moore’s law. Yet, our computers are only incrementally more useful to us than they were in 2012, or 2002, or 1992...In this case, you may ask, isn’t civilization itself the runaway self-improving brain? Is our civilizational intelligence exploding? No. Crucially, the civilization-level intelligence-improving loop has only resulted in measurably linear progress in our problem-solving abilities over time.""
Using technological advancement as a corollary for "civilizational intelligence", if the number of transistors is "exploding", this means our intelligence is exploding as well, because it is increasingly difficult to maintain Moore's law, yet we have. The amount of progress since 1750, is equivalent to the amount of progress from 12,000BC to 1750. Saying "our computers are only incrementally more useful" reminds me of Peter Thiel in his famous "What Happened to the Future" manifesto coining "We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters" while also, might I add, touting Facebook, a company he is an investor in, as an example of true technological progress. Using the smartphone as an example, the advances of these devices are far more than simply "incrementally useful", even since 2012.
"A smart human raised in the jungle is but a hairless ape. Similarly, an AI with a superhuman brain, dropped into a human body in our modern world, would likely not develop greater capabilities than a smart contemporary human. If it could, then exceptionally high-IQ humans would already be displaying proportionally exceptional levels of personal attainment; they would achieve exceptional levels of control over their environment, and solve major outstanding problems— which they don’t in practice.""
Yes, they don't in practice because many with a high IQ, among other inhibitors, have difficulty with social interaction, something computers don't need to worry about. Even if we can only replicate the intelligence of an average brain, this would be a huge breakthrough. Just look at all those things on your TODO list. What if you had 0 distractions, were always motivated, never had to sleep, eat etc. The amount you could get done would be amazing. And then what if we duplicated that average brain as much as we wanted, wouldn't that be super?
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- Counter argument.

Big Tech is Eating the World

In 2011 Marc Andreessen declared “Software is Eating the World”. It is now evident that the software doing the eating is owned by a smaller and smaller set of companies. These Big Tech companies (Alphabet, Apple, Amazon, Facebook, and Microsoft) are backed by serious infrastructure, profits, data, custom silicone, ecosystems, and are increasingly vertical. You argue Big Tech is just like any other powerful sector with a lot of big players. My point is that this is different because Big Tech isn’t limited by vertical, it is limited only by the problems software can solve, which is an ever increasing amount of problems. The Google reorg to Alphabet is interesting because it is an admission of Big Tech’s future, which is to do everything. Software is so flexible and so powerful, that it is giving the large companies who specialize in it an unprecedented amount of wealth and power. We call them “tech companies”, soon that will be like saying “color tv”, because all companies will be tech companies.

Think about it, a large tech company has the power to make a large portion of the human population believe the world is at nuclear war. Facebook and Google could simply promote fake news stories. Apple could spoof text messages to their devices and ensure they can only access websites promoting their fake news stories. With how much internet traffic run through Amazon and Microsoft, they could easily spread news of a nuclear war that doesn’t exist. Am I afraid this is going to happen? No. Am I worried this is even possible? Yes. What's scarier though is the fact that two tech companies, Facebook and Google, own algorithms that shift the thinking of billions of people. I don’t care who owns the keys to that kind of power, that kind of power should not exist.

This sounds crazy, but just 10 years ago you would have thought it crazy for the company behind the iPod to be building a car, an online book retailer to earn an Oscar, a search engine to be solving aging, and your your mom to be on Facebook. It used to be every tech company could grab their own piece of the pie, now it’s about who is going to own the pie shop. Ok Google take search, Apple take laptops people actually like using, Microsoft own the enterprise. Now Big Tech is competing fiercely with each other on multiple fronts, squashing or purchasing smaller players, and making component makers like Qualcomm, Intel, and Nvidia obsolete. But now, these Big Tech companies are breaking out of their bubble. As I alluded to above, there is no such thing as a “tech problem”, there are only problems. Big Tech has chosen to eat media as an appetizer, transportation looks to be next, and I predict banking will come after that.

Big Tech has three possible outcomes. The first, is they get broken up with antitrust legislation. The second, a paradigm shift e.g. blockchain, that levels the playing field. The third, Big Tech keeps getting bigger and bigger until Big Tech is only one company, which we worship as our God and would never dare wish ill on it.
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- Counter argument. "The winners always look invulnerable until they don't." Watch from 2:25 to 5:25, my argument is dismantled in 3 minutes. The question still remains though, are these Big Tech companies different.

Snap Inc. and the Brave New World of Internet Centralization

Snap Inc., one of the highest valued tech IPOs of the last decade, is built on cloud infrastructure from Amazon and Google. It has committed $2 billion to Google Cloud Services and $1 billion to Amazon Web Services over the next five years. This is a tech company that has outsourced a large portion of their tech and it makes me fear for the future of the internet. I don’t blame Snap at all, Google Cloud and AWS are excellent products that has allowed Snap to reach millions of users without significant up front costs associated with building out an entire backend infrastructure form scratch. It is also very possible that like Dropbox, Snapchat will wean themselves off an external infrastructure and take it all in house. But I suspect that over the course of the next decade it will become increasingly difficult from both a technological and cost perspective for companies to build their own infrastructure that can compete with Google Cloud, AWS, and Microsoft Azure. On top of this, solutions like Google’s Firebase, which I expect to become even more popular and even more advanced, ensure the switching costs are even greater because these types of solutions supply more than just computing primitives like storage or computation. These types of solutions force your software to comply with a very specific API, making switching infrastructure even more difficult. Does this mean we will be left with three companies that control the vast majority of internet traffic? I think yes. Though there are other companies like Cloudflare that are increasingly expanding their infrastructure, economies of scale and the momentum behind Google, Amazon, and Microsoft make me think this game is already over. The only way unseat these behemoths is to change the game. Maybe it's blockchain, maybe it's something else. One thing is for sure, it's a brave new world.
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Trust to Trustless

Humanity has undergone 3 major paradigm shifts in transacting. Bartering was the first paradigm shift, allowing humans to trade one good for a different good. The second made trade even easier, allowing all goods to be assigned a value using a standard measurement, i.e. money. The third shift allowed trade to occur without the two parties ever having to meet, by trusting a middleman. This allowed for cross continental trade and allows us today to order millions of products on Amazon. With the arrival of blockchain technologies like Bitcoin and Ethereum, we are currently undergoing the 4th major paradigm shift. Where Amazon and Visa are single points of failure, blockchain offers what I call a level 1 trustless system. There is no single point of failure that we must trust, the nodes of the network ensure consensus, without even having to trust each other. Level 1 trustless systems can still fail. Though difficult, it is possible for malicious actors to compromise the network. There are also humans in control of these projects that act as another point of weakness. The next paradigm shift will be to a level 2 trustless system, which realistically cannot be compromised by a malicious actor. A level 2 trustless system does still rely on humans to steer the direction of the project. A level 3 trustless system is what I consider to be fully trustless. That is, malicious actors cannot compromise the network and there are no humans in control of the direction of the project.
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- Counter argument. "People who think that the purpose of blockchains is to completely expunge soft mushy human intuitions and feelings in favor of completely algorithmic governance (emphasis on “completely”) are absolutely crazy."
- Counter argument. David Graeber in Debt: The First 5,000 Years counters conventional wisdom that bartering was the beginning of human economic activity. Early human peoples relied on a type of primitive credit system instead.

First they Came for the Backend Developers

Parse showed us what the brave new world of serverless development looked like. Before that, using tools like AWS allowed developers to build without managing their own servers. And before that, Joe in dev ops was on call to restart the company server if something went wrong. Parse offered an SDK that offered push notifications, authentication, and storage. Facebook bought them and shut them down. Google bought Firebase and picked up the torch. Albeit some pain points at the beginning, they have kept iterating. This week they announced Cloud Firestore, addressing a pain point around Firebase’s limited Realtime Database. It is easy to see how this can be the future. It makes development much easier, handling scaling and offering several turnkey solutions to common problems. Realm offers a similar product which doesn’t quite have all the features Firebase does. Even with cloud computing solution like AWS, backend developers are needed to get everything wired up. With solutions like Firebase, backend developers are not needed. Frontend developers and native developers, it’s only a matter of time before Firebase solves that problem too. By 2023, any web app or native app that only needs to parse simple data, without doing anything technically special, will be able to be built by someone with limited technical expertise.
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Google, All in or Fall in

Benedict Evans, writing in his newsletter:
"Google paid $1.1bn for part of (struggling) HTC's smartphone team (~2,000 people) plus some non-exclusive IP rights. It remains very unclear how far Google wants to go into making its own phones. Android has lost the greater part of the high-end to Apple, and that seems unlikely to change."
What do you mean it is “unclear how far Google wants to go”? They just spent a billion dollars. Google poached one of the top Apple chip architects in June. The Pixel phones are priced identically to the iPhone. Not only is Google serious about making their own phones, it is only a matter of time before Google starts building their own chips for those phones. iPhones are great because the software and hardware are built together. There is no equivalent of this on Android. It’s why Apple’s chips blow the competition out of the water. Especially as phones start doing more specialized tasks like AR/VR, machine learning, etc. Chips need to be purpose built to optimize for these use cases. Software is eating the world and now hardware is eating software. As for Benedict’s point that Apple’s dominance in the high end “seems unlikely to change”, I agree. The battle may already be over and Apple very well could own the high end phone market until the next paradigm shift in computing. But on the eve of Google’s largest hardware event ever, let’s see what they got.
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Spotify and the Power of Defaults

Google Maps is better than Apple Maps but as of 2015 guess which one is used 3 times as much on iOS devices. Apple Maps. The power of defaults is extraordinary. All Apple Maps has to be is good enough and people don’t feel the need to download a different app. Same story with Apple Music. Spotify launched in 2008 and currently has around 60 million subscribers. Apple Music launched in 2015 and already has 30 million subscribers. This applies on Android as well where Google Play Music is the default. On top of this, Spotify is a product in a vacuum, there is no ecosystem. Apple and Google with the power of ecosystem effects can do things Spotify can’t. Apple’s HomePod will only support Apple Music. A Google Play Music subscription also gives you ad free YouTube videos and offline video playback. Spotify may survive, but not as we know it.
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Avis won’t Survive the Robocar Revolt

Alex Davies, writing for Wired:
"Those old-fashioned companies know a few things about managing and maintaining fleets, skills Silicon Valley upstarts don't have."
He argues the likes of Avis and Hertz will survive the “Robocar Revolt” because of their ability to manage large fleets. What is there to manage when the entire fleet is electric and autonomous? Electric vehicles need far less maintenance. Avis signing a deal with Waymo and Hertz reportedly working with Apple on their vehicles- these are stop gaps, not long term business models. Goodbye old bureaucrats.
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Project Treble

A solution to Android's update problem. This isn't going to be like the failed Update Alliance from 2011. The promise isn't in words, it's in code. Devices shipping with Android Oreo must adhere to Project Treble, mandated in the CTS. David Burke called this the biggest re-architecture of Android since it was born. Iliyan Malchev speaking on Android Developers Backstage said Project Treble is 80% complete with Android Oreo. Assuming the last 20% is completed in Android P, we will see the full repercussions of Project Treble by the speed Android P devices are updated to Android Q. By the Q release manufacturers will be familiar with the architecture changes of Project Treble and it will have been fully implemented in Android P.
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By 2030 there will be a financial services company offering a fully managed investment solution (e.g. saving for retirement, portfolio diversification) that charges no fees. M1 Finance does exactly this and existed before I made the prediction.

By 2030, a major financial services company like Vanguard or Charles Schwab will offer ETFs with an expense ratio of 0.00%.

By 2030 there will be a dominant social network built around user location. Facebook, Snapchat, and Twitter use location, but have it bolted on the side. And dating apps are too use case specific. Location is too powerful to not take center stage in a social network.

By 2070 domain names will be relegated to collectible items- bought, sold, and traded like pieces of art.

By 2022, Amazon will release a router with voice activated Alexa built in.

By 2022, Google will release a router with voice activated Google Assistant built in.

By 2050 nations around the world, including the United States, will implement systems similar to China's Great Firewall to increase national security, as our lives and warfare increasingly become digital.

By 2023 Amazon through Amazon Basics will release a TV.

By 2022 Amazon through Amazon Basics will release a computer monitor.

By 2021 Amazon through Amazon Basics will release a mobile phone.

By 2025 Coinbase will release public APIs for businesses to accept cryptocurrencies as payment online.

By 2025 Coinbase will release a point of sale product allowing businesses to accept cryptocurrencies.

Tom Cruise will finally grow tired of printing out safe action movies (Knight and Day, Jack Reacher, etc.) and return to his days of Vanilla Sky, Magnolia, Tropic Thunder, while also embracing his older age. I believe in you Cruise.

In Android P, the UI to indicate battery saver mode will be replaced with something less garish.

When the minimum amount of Ether to put at stake in the PoS consensus mechanism is announced, the price of Ether will jump as people attempt to hit that minimum amount.

By 2025 there will be a large scale attack carried out on a cryptocurrency that compromises the consensus of that specific blockchain, stealing over 100 million dollars.

By 2030 wireless will usurp hard line (cables in the ground and on telephone poles) as the main way Americans receive internet in their home. Your modem will be connected to a wireless carrier rather than a cable coming into your house.

Next global economic downturn there will be a boon in cryptocurrency market capitalization as people convert their fiat to crypto.

When level 5 autonomous vehicles are prevalent, a large portion of the value of high value real estate (downtown, great location, etc.) will be transferred to what is now considered low value real estate (suburbia, outskirts, etc.)

By 2050, grocers like Walmart and Amazon will differentiate by growing proprietary produce. Think special versions of an orange or even completely new species of plants.

Like Amazon Prime, other large tech companies will release all encompassing subscription plans for their products and services. E.g. Pay Apple $1k a year for a phone upgrade every year, a computer upgrade every two years, Apple Music included, etc.

Spotify will be acquired by 2028.

In the Pixel 3 phone, Google will release a Face ID equivalent that utilizes less specialized hardware than the iPhone X, but makes up for it in software. Similar to Portrait mode now.

By 2022 Google will release a product for managing users' passwords, similar to Lastpass and 1Password. It will have 2FA and other advanced security measures built in.

Razer will release one more iteration of the Razer Phone then stop making them all together.

By 2021 there will be a product used by millions of people built almost entirely on Firebase.

Google will release a Pixel device with a Google designed SoC in 2019.

The "sufficiently simple app” Firebase will allow users to build will be cross platform using the Flutter SDK under the hood.

By 2021, Firebase will allow easy integration with services that provide data about the world e.g. news, weather, stock prices, etc.

By 2023, Firebase will allow a “non developer” to build a sufficiently simple app. This includes backend and UI.

Google will release an Android Wear watch in 2018.

Google will release the Pixel phone through all major US carriers in 2018.

Google will release a Pixel device with Google designed silicon in 2019. Google released the Pixel Visual Core with the Pixel 2 in 2017.

Spotify will either undergo a major shift away from their commodity streaming service or they will perish.

When level 5 driving automation is ubiquitous, the likes of Avis and Hertz will not exist.

The Android Q rollout will prove the update problem for Android has been fixed, especially on high end devices.

Netflix will allow creators to upload directly like YouTube. It will be invite only and the content will be screened.

Google will leave the low end Android device market to other manufacturers.

In 2019 Google built Android devices will be the most prevalent in developed nations.

By 2019 the Facebook Messenger platform will be huge, absorbing what would normally be stand alone apps.

The Nexus program will end in 2018. The Nexus program ended in 2016.

Google will release the first Pixel phone in 2017. The first Pixel phone was released in 2016.

Periscope is going to be huge. Streaming of protests, sports events, disasters etc. Making tv networks even more redundant. Facebook live won this battle, and even that hasn't been "huge".



Benedict Evans Newsletter - There is a lot of noise in tech related news. Benedict Evan cuts through it, giving you a solid weekly newsletter of interesting articles and stats published the previous week.

Zeihan on Geopolitics - A newsletter from the author of Accidental Superpower, which I also recommend. Zeihan takes a step back and puts the geopolitical landscape in perspective, with a penchant for describing what this means for the future of our world.

Stratechery - Similar to Benedict Evans, Ben Thompson steps back and gives you the big picture of the tech business landscape with a focus on how it affects large societal institutions like media and politics. The way he tells it, we've only scratched the surface of how the internet is going to absolutely change everything over the next several decades.

The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal - Reading both is a simple way to expose yourself to differing perspectives. As both require a subscription, their incentives are better aligned to produce quality journalism rather than clickbait.

Mr. Money Mustache - MMM has had a huge impact on the way I view money, how I spend it, and how I invest it. He absolutely shatters conventional wisdom that we all must work for 40 years and hope that by some miracle we've saved enough to survive in retirement. With simple lifestyle changes around avoiding unnecessary consumption, we all, no matter your salary, have the ability to grow substantial wealth, live a meaningful life, and retire / reach financial independence earlier than you ever thought possible. His philosophy on investing aligns with that of John Bogle, whose book I recommend below. I recommend starting here and then reading my all time favorite post by him here. The Mad Fientist is also someone who gives excellent advice towards reaching financial independence, check out his getting started post here. I also recommend the following communities for asking questions and seeking help: Financial Independence, Personal Finance, and Personal Finance & Money. The people in these communities are extremely knowledgeable and willing to help those of all experience levels.


Naval Ravikant on Everything - Naval Ravikant has so many amazing perspectives on life and here shares them all in this interview. It's long, but worth it, given the huge impact it can have on how you view your life and your time.

The World this Week - The 24 hour news cycle is bad for you and is no way to stay informed. The World this Week takes a step back, and gives a look at the news of the world of the previous week. It also does an excellent job covering news in the United States because, being based in London, it gives a much more unemotional and detached view.

Waking Up - Sam Harris has excellent and rational conversations with experts covering politics, science, and the nature of being.

a16z - The most efficient podcast I know of that covers emerging trends in business with a slant towards tech. Short episodes packed with excellent insights.

Exchanges at Goldman Sachs - I know right, from the people who brought you the 2008 financial crisis. Even so, excellent content that covers major global trends through a financial lens. Like it or not, finance is a major driver of our modern world, learning the basics is a worthy endeavor.

99% Invisible - Short episodes covering things in our physical world that you normally wouldn't think twice about.

Hardcore History - Long-form podcast covering major historical events. Dan Carlin is decidedly not a historian, allowing him to take more liberties, leading to amazing storytelling.

Freakonomics - Stephen Dubner covers interesting topics both related to and outside the scope of economics. His guests are very interesting and many of the episodes center around challenging conventional wisdom.

Planet Money - A little cutesy for me at times, but does an excellent job of making all topics related to money and the economy interesting and accessible.


The Obstacle is the Way - This book has had the biggest impact on me, really ingraining in me the truth that obstacles and hardships are actually a GOOD. I think we can all superficially agree that obstacles make us stronger, but this book actually makes you believe it. When you are done, you are going to wish your life was harder.

Sapiens - An amazing high level, detached, and objective view of how humans have evolved over time and come to organize in the world we live in today. The first history book I've read that allowed me to view modern society in a detached and unemotional way. Crucial for putting modern humanity in perspective.

The Lessons of History - Like Sapiens, this offers a detached and objective view of human history, with a focus on big historical events and political systems. Will and Ariel Durant are most famous for their huge 11 volume set, The Story of Civilization. They've taken those ideas and put them in a short, easy to understand read.

Accidental Superpower - Dare I say this book made me proud to be an American. Peter Zeihan describes the new world order created by the United States at the end of World War II which unleashed a global economic revolution. Though it's in vogue to say the United States is over the hill as the EU or China take it's place- Zeihan argues that from an economic and defensive standpoint, the United States has nothing to worry about. The rest of the world, however, will have to come to terms with a more disinterested United States which Zeihan argues will cause global instability over the coming decades. History is not over, in fact, it's back in session.

Man's Search for Meaning - Viktor Frankl gives an objective and philosphical account of his experience surviving in several Nazi concentration camps. Given he was a psychologist, this adds a layer to his narrative and gives us many lessons applicable to everyday life.

The Little Book of Common Sense Investing - This book will blow your mind. Conventional wisdom tells us that the best way to grow wealth is to have the "best" people manage your money and actively invest it. John Bogle, pioneer of the index fund, clearly articulates the simple fact that low cost passive investing is the surest way to build wealth, it's simply no contest. This investing strategy aligns with that of Mr. Money Mustache, one of the publications I recommend above.

Zero to One - Peter Thiel is a bit of a provocateur, and that certainly shows in this book. But he does an excellent job of forcing you to rethink conventional wisdom.

Elon Musk - Similar to Zero to One, Ashlee Vances' narrative on Elon's life gives an account of someone who consistently challenges conventional wisdom through enterprise. In the 21st century no one has taken bigger or more risky bets than Elon Musk, and it is absolutely fascinating to learn about.

Rework - The way most people and businesses work is a glorious waste of time and resources. This will challenge your understanding of what it means to get things done, both inside and outside of work.

The Subtle Art of not Giving a F*ck - Click bait title that should really be "The Subtle Art of Knowing what to give a F*ck About." Focus your energy on the things that matter and forget everything else.

The Alchemist - One of the simplest and most beautiful stories I have ever read. Sometimes you must let go of what's comfortable.


Wikipedia - Providing a repository of knowledge in dozens of languages for the entire world. A contribution to Wikipedia is an investment in humanity.

EFF - Digital rights are more important with every passing day, the Electronic Frontier Foundation time and time again has proven itself not only as a watchdog to power, but also as a repository of practical advice for protecting yourself.

ACLU - Freedom of speech is a pillar of modern civilization. The American Civil Liberties Union has shown itself to defend that pillar no matter what.

International Rescue Committee - Not only aiding those on our planet who need it the most, but also helping them rebuild their lives. The more humans who have access to opportunity, the better off we all are.

Environmental Defense Fund - A practical and bipartisan approach to protecting the environment, often partnering directly with businesses.

Sierra Club - Less practical and more partisan than the EDF, but still a vital pillar to the protection of the environment for over a century.

Mozilla - Big Tech is Eating the World and Mozilla is boots on the ground, working to keep the internet open to all.

Internet Archive - A mission similar to Wikipedia with an emphasis on persisting the state of the web for future generations. They are famous for their Wayback Machine which allows you to view snapshots of websites going back several years, even no gradient. Pivotal for future generations to understand what happened here.